Thursday, September 10, 2009

Vodka Martini - Shaken, not Stirred

Hi All,

One of the most famous statement of Hollywood film industry is "Shaken, not Stirred ..." Ever wondered about this typically different yet radically catchy Bond one-liner ??? Today I am going to tell you about the origin of this one ... Read on .....

"Shaken, not stirred" is a catch phrase of Ian Fleming's fictional British Secret Service agent James Bond, and his preference for how he wished his Martini prepared. James Bond is known to have a affinity for Vodka Martini in high profile parties or Casinos and Bars. However, he usually mentions it to be only shaken and not stirred. The phrase first appears in the novel Diamonds Are Forever (1956), though Bond does not actually say the line until Dr. No (1958). It was first uttered in the films by Sean Connery in Goldfinger in 1964 (though the villain Dr. Julius No offers this drink and utters those words in the first film, Dr. No, in 1962). It was used in numerous Bond films thereafter with the notable exceptions of You Only Live Twice, in which the drink is offered stirred, not shaken (Bond, ever the gentleman and not wanting to cause his polite host embarrassment brushes it off, telling his host it's perfect), and Casino Royale, in which, asked if he wants his martini shaken or stirred, Bond replies, "Do I look like I give a damn?"

Bond first ordered a drink to be shaken in Fleming's novel Casino Royale (1953) when he requested a drink of his own invention which would later be referred to as a "Vesper", named after the Bond girl, Vesper Lynd. James Bond ordered this drink to commemorate his strong feelings for its namesake Vesper, who was also one of the 2 girls in Bond’s life with whom he had extremely strong emotional attachments (the other girl is 'Tracy di Vicenzo', whom Bond actually marries before she was shot and killed). After just meeting his CIA contact Felix Leiter for the first time, Bond orders the drink from a barman while at the casino.

'A dry martini,' he said. 'One. In a deep champagne goblet.'

'Oui, monsieur.'

'Just a moment. Three measures of Gordon's, one of vodka, half a measure of Kina Lillet. Shake it very well until it's ice-cold, then add a large thin slice of lemon peel. Got it?'

'Certainly monsieur.' The barman seemed pleased with the idea.

'Gosh, that's certainly a drink,' said Leiter.

Bond laughed. 'When I',' he explained, 'I never have more than one drink before dinner. But I do like that one to be large and very strong and very cold, and very well-made. I hate small portions of anything, particularly when they taste bad. This drink's my own invention. I'm going to patent it when I think of a good name.'

Casino Royale, Chapter 7: Rouge et Noir (1953)

A “Vesper” differs from Bond's usual cocktail of choice, the Martini, in that it uses both gin and vodka, Kina Lillet instead of vermouth, and a lemon peel instead of an olive. In the same scene Bond gives more details about the Vesper telling the same barman that vodka made from grain instead of potatoes makes the drink even better. Russian and Polish vodkas were also always preferred by Bond if they were in stock. Although there is a lot of discussion on the Vesper, it is only ordered once throughout Fleming's novels and by later books Bond is ordering regular vodka martinis, though he also drinks regular gin martinis. In total Bond orders 19 vodka martinis and 16 gin martinis throughout Fleming's novels and short stories (obviously the offered Vodka martinis are discarded from this calculation).

Since many of the original ingredients from 1953 are no longer available or have been reformulated, several variations are available that attempt to recapture the original flavour of the drink "Vesper" :

  The original recipe called for Kina Lillet. Lillet Blanc (also known as Lillet Blonde) is a typical replacement.
  Dry Vermouth (e.g. Cinzano Extra Dry) may be used as an expedient in the place of Lillet Blanc if it is unavailable.
  To recreate the original bitter flavour of Kina Lillet, add a dash or two of Angostura bitters or a pinch (1/16 of a teaspoon) of Quinine powder.
  For a more traditional flavour, use 100-proof Stolichnaya Vodka to bring the alcohol content of the Vodka back to 1953 levels (it was also one of James Bond's favorite brands along with Smirnoff in later days).
  Likewise, Tanqueray Gin provides the traditional flavour of 94-proof gin; whereas Gordon's Gin was reformulated to less than 80-proof.
  Some esoteric Bond fans may prefer to substitute Boodles British Gin, as it is named for Boodle's gentlemen's club, of which Ian Fleming was a member.
  A cocktail glass, which is larger today than was common in 1953, is often substituted for the deep Champagne goblet (see Champagne stemware for the original look of the drink)
  A "Green Vesper" substitutes absinthe for the Kina Lillet. Lime peel may be substituted for lemon.
  A "Matin" substitutes the Italian aperitif Campari for the Kina Lillet, and reverses the proportions of gin and vodka.

Esquire printed the following update of the recipe in 2006:

"Shake (if you must) with plenty of cracked ice. Mix 3 oz Tanqueray gin, 1 oz 100-proof Stolichnaya vodka, 1/2 oz Lillet Blanc, 1/8 teaspoon (or less) quinine powder or, in desperation, 2 dashes of bitters. Strain into a chilled cocktail glass and twist a large swatch of thin-cut lemon peel over the top.”

Usage in the Bond Films :-

Sean Connery

The shaken Martini is mentioned twice in the first Bond film Dr. No (1962.) Once when Bond had presumably ordered a drink from Room Service to his hotel room, it is mixed by a waiter, who says "one medium dry vodka martini mixed like you said, sir, but not stirred" (a slice of lime was in the bottom of the glass.) And again when Dr. No presents Bond with a drink and says "A medium dry martini, lemon peel. Shaken, not stirred."

Bond did not vocally order one himself until Goldfinger (1964). However, in the 1967 film You Only Live Twice, Bond's contact Henderson, prepares a Martini for Bond and says "That's, um, stirred not shaken. That was right, wasn't it?" To which Bond replies politely, "Perfect." Since then, each Bond has himself ordered the drink, except for two.

George Lazenby

George Lazenby's Bond doesn't actually order for a Drink in his only film On her Majesty's Secret Service. He has some other drinks like island Rum and Whiskey but never orders for the Vodka Martini.

Roger Moore

Roger Moore's Bond never actually ordered one himself, but has one ordered for him several times, nonetheless. In the 1977 film The Spy Who Loved Me, Major Amasova orders him one. In Moonraker, his drink is prepared by Manuela. In Octopussy, Octopussy herself greets Bond by mixing his drink.

Timothy Dalton

Timothy Dalton's Bond ordered his trademark Martini in each of his films. During The Living Daylights he and Kara arrive in Austria where he orders a martini "Shaken, not stirred" shortly after entering their hotel. For his second film, Licence To Kill he doesn't directly order it. Instead, he tells Pam Bouiver what drink he'd like as he plays Blackjack.

Pierce Brosnan

In Die Another Day, Bond is coming back on a rather turbulent British Airways flight. The air hostess (played by Roger Moore's daughter Deborah) serves him his martini, to which Bond replies "Luckily I asked for it shaken". However in World is not Enough, Bond orders for a Martini in a Bar, but it was more due to initiate a conversation.

Daniel Craig

The Vesper was reused in the 2006 film version of Casino Royale, while Bond is playing poker to defeat Le Chiffre. Daniel Craig's Bond ordered the drink in Casino Royale providing great detail about how it should be prepared. Later though when the barman asks whether he would like a Martini shaken or stirred, the younger and less experienced Bond snaps, after losing the poker tournament, "Do I look like I give a damn?"

This phrase has become a recognizable catch phrase in western popular culture, and has appeared in many number of films, television programs and video games for its cliché value.

Now have a go and invent your own Recipe ... Cheers !!!!! ;-)

Satadru Roy

Monday, September 7, 2009

Top 10 Killer Cats

Hi All,
I happened to see this coverage that came upon in one of the shows of Discovery Channel. It showcased the "Top 10 Killer Cats". I hope you all will like it and will go through gradually to find out a nice surprising fact.

These Cats are all magnificient in their own way and all of them have the skills, looks, style, manners and killer instinct to the core. However, excessive hunting, poaching, habitat destruction and food shortage are slowly pushing these beautiful animals to extinction; and the reason is Human. So, we have to be aware and take necessary steps to withdraw, otherwise slowly but surely we might move these creatures over the edge ...

10. Cheetah

The World's Fastest Land Animal has the ability to reach upto 70 miles an hour (114-120 Kmph). Its entire body is made up for Speed - Incredible Speed. It can accelerate from standstill to its devastating top speed in less than 3 seconds (faster than a 'Yamaha R1' accelerating from standstill). However, Cheetah can run at their Top Speed for very short period. Also due to its lighter mass it lacks strength to grab or hold onto bigger preys. Hence it usually gets its prey about once in 20 attempts. The round, black spots on the Cheetah help them to camouflage when hunting. The head of the Cheetah is much smaller compared to other big cats, and during its running its entire body becomes as aerodynamic as possible to extract maximum speed. The Cheetah will eat mostly mammals including gazelles, wildebeests, and zebras. When a Cheetah sprints for its prey, its body temperature becomes so high that it would become fatal if kept at that level for a long period of time. Cheetah is comparatively a social Cat, as it is often found a Cheetah family moving together for hunting purpose. Cheetahs are on the World Conservation Union list of vulnerable species. There are said to be about 12,400 cheetahs left in the wild. Cheetah are the only Cats who are not much efficient Tree-Climbers.

9. Fishing Cat

The Fishing Cat is a medium-sized cat, whose disjunct global range extends through South-East Asia. Its fur has an olive-grey color with dark spots arranged stripe-like running along the length of the body. The face has a distinctly flat-nosed appearance. The size varies between locations. The Fishing Cat lives along rivers, brooks and mangrove swamps. It is well adapted to this habitat, being an eager and skilled swimmer. It is among the few Cats who enjoy Water. As the name implies, fish is the main prey of this cat, of which it hunts about 10 different species. It also hunts other aquatic animals such as frogs or crayfish, and terrestrial animals such as rodents and birds. The inter-digital webs on its paws help the cat gain better traction in muddy environments and water, like other mammals living in semi-aquatic environments. It is the only Cat which has its physiological structure perfectly adapted for hunting in Water and Swamps (although Tiger and Jaguar also enjoy Swamps and Water, they are not commonly known to have aquatic species as their prey unless they encounter one). The Fishing Cat is endangered due to its dependence on wetlands, which are increasingly being settled and converted for agriculture, and also due to human over-exploitation of local fish stocks.

8. Wild Cat

The Wildcat is a hunter of small mammals, birds, and other creatures of a similar size. There are several subspecies distributed in different regions spanning around the Asia, Africa and Europe. The Wildcat is extremely timid. It avoids approaching human settlements. It lives solitarily and holds a territory of about 3 km². The Wildcat is predominantly a carnivore; insects and plants are unimportant parts of its diet. Most of its prey are small mammals, mainly rodents and rabbits, with lizards being the third most common prey, and birds the least common (However, some sub-species of the Wild Cat, such as 'Serval' is known to actively feed upon Birds). In jungle where its relatively smaller size makes a big threat for itself, it actually lives in ease, adapting to the habitat and the food available extremely fast. Its versatile ability of Tree-Climbing, Stealth, Quick Attack comes into its help. Among several variation of the Wild Cats, 'Serval' - an African Wild Cat is known to jump 8-16 ft vertically up to catch some of the flying Birds. Servals are very friendly animal while trying to be domesticated and serve as a wonderful pet. However, they tend to share an emotional bond with any one of the human family and becomes unhappy on being away from that person. Hence is USA there are strict rules for commitment and plannning imposed by government before keeping a Serval as a pet.

Often it is seen that these Cats simply jump over 10 feet vertically from the ground from its sitting position to catch a low-flying Bird successfully.

7. Puma

Also known as 'Cougar', 'Mountain Lion', 'Catamount' or 'El Tiger', the Pumas are known to kill animals twice of its size. Native to the Americas, this large, solitary cat has the greatest range of any large wild terrestrial mammal in the Western Hemisphere, extending from Yukon in Canada to the southern Andes of South America. An adaptable, generalist species, the Puma is found in every major American habitat type. It is the second heaviest cat in the American continents after the Jaguar, and the fourth heaviest in the world, along with the Leopard, after the Tiger, Lion, and Jaguar, although it is most closely related to smaller felines.
A capable stalk-and-ambush predator, the Puma pursues a wide variety of prey. Primary food sources include ungulates such as deer, elk, and bighorn sheep, as well as domestic cattle, horses, and sheep, particularly in the northern part of its range, but it also hunts species as small as insects and rodents. In fact as a successful generalist predator, the Puma will eat any animal it can catch, from insects to large ungulates (over 500 kg). Like all cats, it is an obligate carnivore, feeding only on meat. Moreover, it prefers habitats with dense underbrush and rocky areas for stalking, but it can live in open areas. While it is a large predator, it is not always the dominant species in its range, as when it competes for prey with other predators such as the Jaguar, Gray Wolf, American Black Bear, and the Grizzly Bear. It is a reclusive cat and usually avoids people. Attacks on humans remain rare. Due to excessive hunting following the European colonization of the Americas, and continuing human development of cougar habitat, populations have dropped in most parts of its historical range.

6. Lion

The Lion is one of four big Cats in the genus Panthera, and a member of the family Felidae. With some males exceeding 250 kg (550 lb) in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the Tiger. Lions are usually found in Africa and Asia only. The male Lions seldom live longer than ten years as fights with rivals (other Male Lions) occasionally cause injuries. They typically inhabit savanna and grassland, although they may take to bush and forest. Lions are unusually social compared to other cats. A pride of lions consists of related females and offspring and a small number of adult males. Groups of female lions typically hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates. The lion is an apex and keystone predator, although they will scavenge if the opportunity arises. While lions do not typically hunt humans selectively, in rare cases some have been known to become man-eaters and seek human prey. Visually, the male lion is highly distinctive and is easily recognized by its mane. The lion, particularly the face of the male, is one of the most widely recognized animal symbols in human culture. Lions are known to attack and kill large preys. Lionesses do the majority of the hunting for their pride, being smaller, swifter and more agile than the males, and unencumbered by the heavy and conspicuous mane, which causes overheating during exertion. They act as a co-ordinated group in order to stalk and bring down the prey successfully.

A pride of Lioness are known to even bring down even an out-of-group Elephant. However, if nearby the hunt, males have a tendency to dominate the kill once the Lionesses have succeeded and eaten. They are more likely to share with the cubs than with the lionesses, but rarely share food they have killed by themselves. Smaller prey is eaten at the location of the hunt, thereby being shared among the hunters; when the kill is larger it often is dragged to the pride area. This big Cat, referred as the King of the Jungle is also resembled for greatness.

5. Snow Leopard

The snow leopard (Uncia uncia or Panthera uncia), sometimes known as ounce, is a moderately large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia and the Himalayan region. Snow leopards are smaller than the other big cats but like them, exhibit a range of sizes, generally weighing between 27 and 54 kilograms (60 and 120 lb). Body length ranges from 75 to 130 centimetres (30 to 50 in), with a tail of nearly the same length. Snow leopards have long thick fur to keep them warm in the extreme cold conditions, the base colour of which varies from smoky grey to yellowish tan, with whitish underparts. They have dark grey to black open rosettes on their body with small spots of the same colour on their heads and larger spots on their legs and tail.

Snow leopards show several adaptations for living in a cold mountainous environment. Their bodies are stocky, their fur is thick, and their ears are small and rounded, all of which help to minimize heat loss. Their feet are wide, which distributes their weight better for walking on snow, and they have fur on their undersides to increase their traction on steep and unstable surfaces, as well as to assist with minimising heat loss. Snow leopards' tails are long and flexible, helping them to maintain their balance. The tails are also very thickly covered with fur which, apart from minimising heat loss, allows them to be used like a blanket to protect their faces when asleep.

Snow leopards are carnivores and actively hunt their prey. However, like all cats, they are opportunistic feeders, eating whatever meat they can find including carrion and domestic livestock. They are capable of killing animals three times their size but will readily take much smaller prey such as hares and birds. The diet of the snow leopard varies across its range and with the time of year, and is dependent on prey availability. Since the availability of the prey is much less in these terrains, the snow leopard needs to be accurate and hunt with maximum efficiency. And Snow Leopard does just that.

In the Himalayas it preys mostly on bharals (Himalayan blue sheep) but in other mountain ranges such as the Karakorum, Tian Shan, and Altai, its main prey consists of Siberian ibex and argali, a type of wild sheep, although this has become rarer in some parts of the snow leopard's range. Other large animals eaten include various types of wild goats and sheep (such as markhors and urials), other goat-like ruminants such as Himalayan tahr and gorals, plus deer, boars, and langur monkeys. Smaller prey consists of marmots, woolly hares, pikas, various rodents , and birds such as the snow cock and chukar. It is not averse to taking domestic livestock, which brings it into direct conflict with humans. Herders will kill snow leopards to prevent them from taking their animals. Snow leopards prefer to ambush prey from above and can leap as far as 14 meters (46 ft). These magnificient animal, very rarely seen, survives happily in these extreme terrain and hence comes at our number 5.

4. Tiger

The largest of the Big Cats, the Tiger is an apex predator and an obligate carnivore. Reaching up to 4 metres (13 ft) in total length and weighing up to 300 kilograms (660 pounds), the larger tiger subspecies are comparable in size to the biggest extinct felids. Aside from their great bulk and power, their most recognizable feature is the pattern of dark vertical stripes that overlays near-white to reddish-orange fur, with lighter underparts. The most numerous tiger subspecies is the Bengal Tiger while the largest subspecies is the Siberian Tiger. Tigers are extremely efficient hunter, mixing their speed, swimming ability, tree-climbing, stealth and power to the devastating effect.

The Golden-Black Stripes of the Tiger makes it the most beautiful of the Big Cats and also the most deceptive in the grass lands. The White Tiger, a subspecies and not an Albino; is pretty rare and extremely beautiful. Although the Tiger is known for its stealth and powerful attack, the Tiger is also known for its Royal life style with don't care attitude. Highly adaptable, Tigers range from the Siberian taiga, to open grasslands, to tropical mangrove swamps. They are territorial and generally solitary animals, often requiring large contiguous areas of habitat that support their prey demands. Excessive Hunting, Poaching and Human advancement along with their habitat destruction has made this greatest of the Big Cats an endangered species. Tigers are perhaps the most recognisable of all the cats (with the possible exception of the Lion).

Tigers have the additional distinction of being the heaviest cats found in the wild. They also have powerfully built legs and shoulders, with the result that they, like lions, have the ability to pull down prey substantially heavier than themselves. However, unlike Lions, the Tigers kills its prey alone. With their superior hunting skills along with their comouflage due to the stripes and their sudden burst of speed Tiger remains among the deadliest of the big cats.

Tigers are essentially solitary and territorial animals. The size of a Tiger's home range mainly depends on prey abundance, and, in the case of male Tigers, on access to females. A Tigress may have a territory of 20 square kilometres while the territories of males are much larger, covering 60–100 km2. The ranges of males tend to overlap those of several females.

The relationships between individuals can be quite complex, and it appears that there is no set "rule" that tigers follow with regards to territorial rights and infringing territories. For instance, although for the most part tigers avoid each other, both male and female tigers have been documented sharing kills. For instance, George Schaller observed a male tiger share a kill with two females and four cubs. Females are often reluctant to let males near their cubs, but Schaller saw that these females made no effort to protect or keep their cubs from the male, suggesting that the male might have been the father of the cubs. In contrast to male lions, male tigers will allow the females and cubs to feed on the kill first. Furthermore, tigers seem to behave relatively amicably when sharing kills, in contrast to lions, which tend to squabble and fight. Unrelated tigers have also been observed feeding on prey together.
Male tigers are generally more intolerant of other males within their territory than females are of other females. For the most part, however, territorial disputes are usually solved by displays of intimidation, rather than outright aggression. Several such incidents have been observed, in which the subordinate tiger yielded defeat by rolling onto its back, showing its belly in a submissive posture.

Once dominance has been established, a male may actually tolerate a subordinate within his range, as long as they do not live in too close quarters. The most violent disputes tend to occur between two males when a female is in oestrus, and may result in the death of one of the males, although this is actually a relatively rare occurrence. To identify his territory, the male marks trees by spraying of urine containing the pheromone.

In the wild, tigers mostly feed on larger and medium sized animals. Sambar, gaur, chital, wild boar, nilgai and both water buffalo and domestic buffalo are the tiger's favored prey in India. Sometimes, they also prey on leopards, pythons, sloth bears and crocodiles. In Siberia the main prey species are manchurian wapiti, wild boar, sika deer, moose, roe deer, and musk deer. In Sumatra Sambar, muntjac, wild boar, and malayan tapir are preyed on. In the former Caspian tiger's range, prey included saiga antelope, camels, caucasian wisent, yak, and wild horses. Like many predators, they are opportunistic and will eat much smaller prey, such as monkeys, peafowls, hares, and fish. Adult elephants are too large to serve as common prey, but conflicts between tigers and elephants do sometimes take place. A case where a tiger killed an adult Indian Rhinoceros has been observed. Young elephant and rhino calves are occasionally taken. Tigers also sometimes prey on domestic animals such as dogs, cows, horses, and donkeys. These individuals are termed cattle-lifters or cattle-killers in contrast to typical game-killers. Old Tigers, or those wounded and rendered incapable of catching their natural prey, have turned into man-eaters; this pattern has recurred frequently across India. An exceptional case is that of the Sundarbans, where healthy tigers prey upon fishermen and villagers in search of forest produce, humans thereby forming a minor part of the Tiger's diet. Researches have shown that the regular flooding in the mangroves and thus washing away the Tiger's territory has made the Tigers of Sunderban much hostile than natural. Tigers will occasionally eat vegetation for dietary fiber, the fruit of the Slow Match Tree being favoured. Unlike the leopard or some of the other wild cats, Tiger owing to its royal life style, never bothers to care for its prey moving extremely close when it is not hungry.

Tigers usually hunt at night. They generally hunt alone and ambush their prey as most other cats do, overpowering them from any angle, using their body size and strength to knock large prey off balance. Even with their great masses, Tigers can reach speeds of about 49-65 kilometres per hour (35-40 miles per hour), although they can only do so in short bursts, since they have relatively little stamina; consequently, Tigers must be relatively close to their prey before they break their cover. Tigers have great leaping ability; horizontal leaps of up to 10 metres have been reported, although leaps of around half this amount are more typical. However, only one in twenty hunts ends in a successful kill. Despite its bulk, Tiger is also known to make astounding vertical leaps. In rare occassions, it is reported that a Tiger has leapt over 5-6 metres (16-20 ft approx.) from ground vertically to catch its prey.

In a poll conducted by Animal Planet, the Tiger was voted the world's favourite animal, narrowly beating the dog. More than 500,000 viewers from 73 countries voted in the poll. Tigers received 21% of the vote, dogs 20%, dolphins 13%, horses 10%, lions 9%, snakes 8%, followed by elephants, chimpanzees, orangutans and whales. Animal behaviourist Candy d'Sa, who worked with Animal Planet on the list, said: "We can relate to the Tiger, as it is fierce and commanding on the outside, but noble and discerning on the inside".

However, excessive poaching and hunting by Human has rendered Tiger to become an endangered species. This magnificient creature needs preservation to survive. Several countries have came up and joined their hand in Save Tiger movements, and subsequently banned all these Hunting and Poaching activities. With the royal Style, extraordinary Gravity, abundant Power and ferocious Attitude; the Tiger remains comfortably as the 4th greatest Killer Cat.

3. Jaguar

The ultimate all-rounder of the big cats, the Jaguar is devilishly stealth, extremely swift, exceptionally good swimmer and equally great tree climber. The Jaguar is the third-largest feline after the Tiger and the Lion, and the largest and most powerful feline in the Western Hemisphere. The Jaguar's present range extends from Mexico across much of Central America and south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. This spotted cat most closely resembles the leopard physically, although it is usually larger and of sturdier build and its behavioral and habitat characteristics are closer to those of the Tiger. While dense rainforest is its preferred habitat, the Jaguar will range across a variety of forested and open terrain. It is strongly associated with the presence of water and is notable, along with the tiger, as a feline that enjoys swimming. The Jaguar is a largely solitary, stalk-and-ambush predator, and is opportunistic in prey selection. It is also an apex and keystone predator, playing an important role in stabilizing ecosystems and regulating the populations of prey species. The Jaguar has developed an exceptionally powerful bite, even relative to the other big cats. This allows it to pierce the shells of armoured reptiles and to employ an unusual killing method: it bites directly through the skull of prey between the ears to deliver a fatal blow to the brain.

The Jaguar is a compact and well-muscled animal. There are significant variations in size: weights are normally in the range of 56–96 kilograms (124–211 lb). Larger males have been recorded at 159 kilograms (350 lb) (roughly matching a tigress or lioness), and smaller ones have extremely low weights of 36 kilograms (80 lb). Females are typically 10–20% smaller than males. The length of the cat varies from 1.62–1.83 meters (5.3–6 ft), and its tail may add a further 75 centimeters (30 in). It stands about 67–76 centimeters (27–30 in) tall at the shoulders. A short and stocky limb structure makes the Jaguar adept at climbing, crawling and swimming. The head is robust and the jaw extremely powerful. It has been suggested that the Jaguar has the strongest bite of all felids, and the second strongest of all mammals; this strength is an adaptation that allows the Jaguar to pierce turtle shells. The base coat of the Jaguar is generally a tawny yellow, but can range to reddish-brown and black. The cat is covered in rosettes for camouflage in its jungle habitat. The spots vary over individual coats and between individual Jaguars: rosettes may include one or several dots, and the shape of the dots varies. The spots on the head and neck are generally solid, as are those on the tail, where they may merge to form a band. The underbelly, throat and outer surface of the legs and lower flanks are white. A condition known as melanism occurs in the species. The melanistic form is less common than the spotted form (it occurs at about 6% of the population) of Jaguars. These Melanistic Jaguars are informally known as Black Panther.

While the Jaguar closely resembles the Leopard, it is sturdier and heavier, and the two animals can be distinguished by their rosettes: the rosettes on a Jaguar's coat are larger, fewer in number, usually darker, and have thicker lines and small spots in the middle that the leopard lacks. Jaguars also have rounder heads and shorter, stockier limbs compared to Leopards.

Like most cats, the Jaguar is solitary outside mother-cub groups. Adults generally meet only to court and mate. In some cases Males are found together without fighting. Mating fights between the males occur over a female, but are rare, and aggression avoidance behaviour has been observed in the wild. When it occurs, conflict is typically over territory: a male's range may encompass that of two or three females, and he will not tolerate intrusions by other adult males. The Jaguar is often described as nocturnal, but is more specifically crepuscular (peak activity around dawn and dusk). Both sexes hunt, but males travel farther each day than females, befitting their larger territories. The Jaguar may hunt during the day if game is available and is a relatively energetic feline, spending as much as 50–60% of its time active. The Jaguar's elusive nature and the inaccessibility of much of its preferred habitat make it a difficult animal to sight, let alone study. Like all cats, the Jaguar is an obligate carnivore, feeding only on meat. It is an opportunistic hunter and its diet encompasses 87 species. The Jaguar prefers large prey and will take deer, capybara, tapirs, peccaries, dogs, foxes, and sometimes even anacondas and cayman. However, the cat will eat any small species that can be caught, including frogs, mice, birds, fish, sloths, monkeys, turtles and sometimes even armadillos and pacas. Some Jaguars will also take domestic livestock, including adult cattle and horses, however Jaguars avoid human intimacy.

The Jaguar is a stalk-and-ambush rather than a chase predator. The cat will walk slowly down forest paths, listening for and stalking prey before rushing or ambushing. The Jaguar attacks from cover and usually from a target's blind spot with a quick pounce; the species' ambushing abilities are considered nearly peerless in the animal kingdom by both indigenous people and field researchers, and are probably a product of its role as an apex predator in several different environments. The ambush may include leaping into water after prey, as a Jaguar is quite capable of carrying a large kill while swimming; its strength is such that carcasses as large as a heifer can be hauled up a tree to avoid flood levels.

2. Leopard

The Leopard is a member of the Felidae family and the smallest of the four "big cats" in the genus Panthera; the other three being the Tiger, Lion and Jaguar. Having a range over Asia and Africa its numbers are greater than other Panthera species, all of which face more acute conservation concerns. The leopard has relatively short legs and a long body, with a large skull. It resembles the jaguar, although it is smaller and of slighter build. Its fur is marked with rosettes which lack internal spots, unlike those of the jaguar. Leopards that are melanistic, either completely black or very dark, are one of the big cats known as black panthers. The master of Tree Climbing and Stealth Attack with devastating ferocity, terrific speed and unmatched agility the Leopard can easily co-exist with the larger predators competing for the prey. They typically face the competition from the Tigers in Asia and the Lions in Africa. This is one of the reason Leopards try to kill its prey at the slightest of the opportunities seen, even if it is not hungry; as many times it has to desert its kill due to arrival of a larger Cat. The species' success in the wild owes in part to its opportunistic hunting behaviour, its adaptability to habitats and its ability to move at up to approximately 58 kilometres (36 miles) an hour. The Leopard consumes virtually any animal it can hunt down and catch. Its preferred habitat ranges from rainforest to desert terrains. Its ecological role is similar to the American Puma.

The leopard is an agile and stealthy predator. Although smaller than the other members of the Panthera genus, the leopard is still able to take large prey given a massive skull that well utilizes powerful jaw muscles. Its body is comparatively long for a cat and its legs are short with the Tail being about half the size of the body. Males are about 30% larger than females,[17] weighing 37 to 91 kg (82 to 200 lb) compared to 28 to 60 kg (62 to 130 lb) for females. The larger-bodied populations of leopard are generally found in areas isolated from competing large predators, especially from dominant big cats like Lions and Tigers. Leopards may sometimes be confused with two other large spotted cats, the Cheetah and the Jaguar. However, the patterns of spots in each are different: the Cheetah has simple spots, evenly distributed, the Jaguar has polygonal rosettes of spots, many of which have a central spot, while the Leopard normally has rounder, smaller rosettes without a central spot. The Leopard is larger and much more muscular than the Cheetah, but slightly smaller and more lightly built than the jaguar. The leopard's rosettes are circular in East Africa but tend to be squarer in southern Africa.

A melanistic morph of the leopard occurs, particularly in mountainous areas and rain forests. The black color is heritable and caused by recessive gene loci. (While they are commonly called Black Panthers, the term is not exclusive to Leopards; it also applies to melanistic Jaguars.) Melanistic Leopards are particularly common on the Malayan Peninsula: early reports suggested up to half of all leopards there are black, but a 2007 camera-trap study in Taman Negara National Park found that all specimens were melanistic. The Black colour that works as an extremely efficient comouflage in the Dark and in the Rainforest, doesn't work that good in African Savana.

The Leopard is known for its ability in climbing, and it has been observed resting on tree branches during the day and descending from trees headfirst. It is a powerful swimmer, although, not as strong as some other big cats, such as the Tiger. The Leopard is also very agile, and can run at over 58 km/h (36 mph), leap over six metres and jump up to three metres vertically. The leopard is primarily a nocturnal creature, and many of its operations are done by night. However, there have been recorded instances of leopards hunting during the light, especially when the sky is overcast. It spends much of its day resting and sleeping, up in the branches of trees, underneath rocks or in the grass.

Leopards are opportunistic hunters. Although mid-sized animals are preferred, the leopard will eat anything from 20 gm dung beetles to 900 kg (1,984 lb) male giant elands. Their diet consists mostly of ungulates and monkeys, but rodents, reptiles, amphibians, birds and fish are also eaten. In Africa, mid-sized antelopes provide a majority of the leopard's prey, especially impala and Thomson's gazelles. In Asia the leopard preys on deer such as chitals and muntjacs as well as various Asian antelopes and Ibex. Prey preference estimates in southern India showed that the most favoured prey of the leopard was the chital. The Leopard stalks its prey silently and at the last minute pounces on its prey and strangles its throat with a quick bite. Leopards often hide their kills in dense vegetation or take them up trees, and are capable of carrying animals up to three times their own weight this way. The Leopard is also the only Big Cat that can carry its prey up into a tree.

Because of their wide habitat range, Leopards must compete for food and safety with other large predators such as Lions, Tigers, spotted Hyenas and both African and Asiatic wild Dogs. These competitors may steal the Leopard's kill or devour its young. A single Lion or Tiger is capable of killing an adult Leopard. Leopards have adapted to live alongside these other predators by hunting at different times of the day, and by avoiding areas frequented by them. In search of safety, the Leopard will often stash its young or a recent kill high up in a tree. Lions are occasionally successful in climbing trees and fetching Leopard kills. Although Tigers are much more royal in their manners, if motivated, an adult Tiger might also scale up a tree to acquire food. Leopards avoid intimating human the most, however they tend to be the most ferocious when there is no other choice. Because they can subsist on small prey and are less dependent on large prey, leopards are less likely to turn to man-eating than either lions or tigers. However, leopards might be attracted to human settlements by livestock or pets, especially dogs, and they may resort to the eating of humans should conditions demand it, and no other food is available.

1. Domestic Cat

Surprised ??? Don't be ... The cute looking cuddly harmless creature have a superb split personality and easily converts itself into the greatest Killer Cat in a blink of an eye. All the previously mentioned variations of Cats fight for their survival, hunt for their existence, attack each-other to show their authority; but our House Cat need not do anything of that sort in general. They need not learn hunting as they live on provided food or scraps. They love being contented with the food they get without problem. Then the big question is, how come they learn to hunt other animals ????? A house cat in its life time on an average kills over 10000 animals and insects from over 200 major different species. It kills any animal it can, upto around its own size. And the funny fact is most of the time it doesn't eat them. House Cats don't need to kill for its food ... So, why ???? Why does it kill, when it really doesn't need to ???? The answer is, the Cat kills mainly for Fun ..... It loves to kill ... It loves to play with its prey - a deadly life and death game ..... And then if need be, eat them in turn .... The Cat simply enjoys killing ...

The Cat, also known as the domestic cat or housecat to distinguish it from other felines and felids, is a small carnivorous mammal that is valued by humans for its companionship and its ability to hunt vermin and household pests. It has been associated with humans for at least 9,500 years and is currently the most popular pet in the world. A skilled predator, the Cat is known to hunt over 1,000 species for food. It can be trained to obey simple commands. Individual cats have also been known to learn on their own to manipulate simple mechanisms, such as doorknobs and toilet handles. Cats use a variety of vocalizations and types of body language for communication, including meowing, purring, "trilling", hissing, growling, squeaking, chirping, clicking, and grunting. Until recently the Cat was commonly believed to have been domesticated in ancient Egypt, where it was a cult animal. However, in 2004, the earliest known location of cat domestication was discovered to be ancient Cyprus, and a subsequent study in 2007 found that the lines of descent of all house cats probably run through as few as five self-domesticating African Wildcats circa 8000 BC, in the Near East.

Cats have excellent night vision and can function at only one-sixth the light level required for human vision. Cats have excellent hearing and can detect an extremely broad range of frequencies. They can hear higher-pitched sounds than either dogs or humans, detecting frequencies from 55 Hz up to 79 kHz, a range of about 7 octaves; while humans can only hear from 31 Hz up to 18 kHz, and dogs hear from 67 Hz to 44 kHz, which are both ranges of about 6 octaves. Cats do not use this ability to hear ultrasound for communication but it is probably important in hunting, since many species of rodents make ultrasonic calls. Cats' hearing is also extremely sensitive and is among the best of any mammal, being most sensitive in the range of 500 Hz to 32 kHz. This sensitivity is further enhanced by the cat's large movable outer ears (their pinnae), which both amplify sounds and help a cat sense the direction from which a noise is coming from. Cats have an acute sense of smell, which is due in part to well-developed modification to their nasal system. To aid with navigation and sensation, cats have dozens of movable vibrissae (whiskers) over their body, especially their face. These provide information on the location of objects in the dark, both by touching objects directly and by sensing air currents; they also trigger protective blink reflexes to protect the eyes from damage. Finally these modification aids to a Cat's normal tendency of Killing, which is its natural instinct.

A Domestic Cat can survive the dangers of the forest with its survival skills even if it has never seen one before, but other Domestic animals, such as Dogs can never do that. The hunting in these Cats are natural ... It runs through their veins and although they remain the cutest domestic pet, their pedigree lies under their very skin .... With this tremendous natural talent for killing, our House Cat becomes the Ultimate Killer Cat .....

Those Cats are really cute & cuddly !!!

Satadru Roy

Thursday, September 3, 2009

Top 50 Movie Stars of Hollywood

Hi All,

Now we will discuss about the Top Movie-Stars of Hollywood.

Actors and actresses come and go, but movie stars are forever.
Or at least a really long time.

But what exactly constitutes a movie star isn't clear. It's not just talent or marketability or good taste or any other single thing, though all of those elements play a role. It's something more, something not as easy to define.

Star power, you might call it - the ability to create time and again characters audiences want to spend time with for whatever reason. The easiest way to describe it is to say you know it when you see it.

And who are the biggest stars? That's what we're debating. Ask 10 people, and you'll likely get 10 different answers - it's that subjective.

You'll only get one answer here: mine.

Meryl Streep ... 15 Oscar Nominations and 2 Wins. Legend personified .....

As such, it isn't intended to be the last word on the matter, but the first word on a long, healthful argument. Will you find fault with who's on it and who's not, and the order? I certainly hope so.

The selection here is open for all, as you guys can definitely suggest some addition of your choice. I have just compiled some Top 50 Actors and Actresses in this List who deserve to be in it. (It certainly does not signify anybody outside this List deserve any less, but it is that I have selected 50 only.)

So, Let's begin our Quest .....

50. Johnny Depp: Sort of a latter-day Jack Nicholson, with the huge talent, the exotic lifestyle, all that. He's come a long way from "21 Jump Street."

49. Kate Winslet: The next Meryl Streep? Perhaps. A great talent who never disappoints, even if her movies sometimes do. Won the heart of millions in the blockbuster Titanic as the beautiful Rose. Won an Oscar for "The Reader," though she's been better elsewhere.
Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet sizzled the silver screen in Titanic

48. Mary Pickford: Huge silent star and an Oscar winner, for "Coquette," she also co-founded United Artists and the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. A tiny giant in the industry.

47. Robert Mitchum: "The Night of the Hunter," "Cape Fear" and a hard-charging lifestyle combined for a nicely iconoclastic image.

46. Sean Connery: Three words: Bond. James Bond. And yet he won his Oscar for "The Untouchables."

45. John Travolta: He's been a star - and not - several times. "Welcome Back, Kotter" made him famous, "Saturday Night Fever" got him respect, "Pulp Fiction" made people care again. Clunkers along the way, but a likable sort.

44. Jerry Lewis: Oui, Jerry Lewis, though you don't have to be French to appreciate that he had total control over his absurd comedies.

43. Michael Caine: Here's how you know you're a star: You make "Jaws: The Revenge" and everyone respects you anyway. A couple of Oscars ("Hannah and Her Sisters" and "The Cider House Rules") will do that for you.
At 75, still adorable and equally great - Michael Caine stars in The Dark Knight

42. Shirley Temple: Long before the term "child star" meant a future ticket to rehab, she was one of the world's biggest celebrities - and emerged unscathed.

41. Brad Pitt: More than just a pretty face. Really - watch him in "Twelve Monkeys." And with tabloid romances and multiple adoptions and whatnot, the modern embodiment of what it means to be a star.

40. Steve McQueen: Went from "The Blob" to "The Great Escape" and "Bullitt," becoming just about the coolest guy on the planet in the process.
Steve Mcqueen, during the filming of the Documentary classic Le Mans

39. Sigourney Weaver: Hugely talented, good at drama ("The Ice Storm") and comedy ("Ghost Busters"), but she'll always be kick-butt Ripley in the "Alien" films to us.

38. Groucho Marx: You think of the eyebrows and the greasepaint mustache, but Marx is probably the greatest comic actor of all time. A legitimate genius.

37. Julie Andrews: She's doesn't only play good girls, in films like "Mary Poppins" (for which she won an Oscar) and "The Sound of Music" - she did have a memorable topless scene in "S.O.B." But she played them well enough to be loved for them.

36. Denzel Washington: Sure, he's won two Oscars, for "Glory" and "Training Day." But you know you're a star when you're handsome enough to have your face featured in a hit song ("Whatta Man," a hit for Salt-N-Pepa with En Vogue).

35. Warren Beatty: The last bridge between the studio system and modern Hollywood. Great actor, director, has had some success with the ladies, as they say. Won an Oscar for directing "Reds."

34. George Clooney: Heir to Cary Grant, sort of - handsome, suave, the kind of guy you'd like to hang out with. Or see in a movie. Gained weight and won an Oscar for "Syriana."

33. Morgan Freeman: With some stars, it's looks. Others, it's attitude. With Freeman? It's that voice. No wonder he played God in "Bruce Almighty" and "Evan Almighty." Won an Oscar for "Million Dollar Baby."
Morgan Freeman (right) and Christian Bale in The Dark Knight. A legend and another in the making ???

32. Will Smith: Makes about a movie a year, sometimes two, typically rules the box office. Why? Because people really, really like him.

31. Audrey Hepburn: Five Oscar nominations, one win (for "Roman Holiday") and a continuing presence as a fashion icon.

30. Tom Cruise: Savvy, successful, maybe a little nuts. A huge star anyway, and an underrated actor.

29. Al Pacino: There are other reasons he's on this list - "Dog Day Afternoon," for instance - but I'm sorry, you play Michael Corleone in the "Godfather" movies, you get a free pass for life. Then he goes and wins an Oscar for overacting in "Scent of a Woman."

28. Clint Eastwood: From spaghetti-Western star to Dirty Harry to a four-time Oscar winner - two each for "Unforgiven" and "Million Dollar Baby." Star power? Helped get him elected mayor of Carmel, Calif., and has kept him atop the list of iconic American tough guys.

27. Barbra Streisand: Known now more for her politics, she has two Oscars (for acting in "Funny Girl" and composing "A Star is Born"), a Tony, an Emmy, a Grammy, a Golden Globe ... you get the idea.

26. Harrison Ford: Has the cool roles (Indiana Jones, Han Solo) and the box-office pull; his films have made, literally, billions.

25. John Wayne: Embodies the Western, a larger-than-life movie cowboy. Check out "The Searchers" and "The Shootist" (his last film) for his best work, not his Oscar turn in "True Grit."

24. Dustin Hoffman: His Ben Braddock from "The Graduate" is a counterculture icon and got him his first of seven Oscar nominations (he would win for "Kramer vs. Kramer" and "Rain Man").
Dustin Hoffman (right) and Tom Cruise put some outstanding performance in the Rain Man. Two of the Finest in Hollywood.

23. Elizabeth Taylor: Has become something of an oddity, but was the biggest star of her day (that day being roughly the 1960s). More husbands than Oscars, but she does have two of the latter, for "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?" and "Butterfield 8."

22. Julia Roberts: Her power outstrips her performances, despite an Oscar for "Erin Brockovich."

21. Sidney Poitier: Won an Oscar for "Lilies of the Field," but he's best known for the three (!) films he made in 1967: "To Sir, With Love," "In the Heat of the Night" and "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner." Not a bad run.

20. Robert Redford: The thinking-woman's sex symbol, at least in the '70s. Known as an actor, of course, but also an Oscar-winning director ("Ordinary People").

19. Grace Kelly: Won an Oscar for "The Country Girl," won hearts in "Rear Window" the same year. Beautiful, talented and married a prince - now that's a star.

18. Buster Keaton: Chaplin gets more acclaim, but "Sherlock Jr." and "The General" are works of comedy genius.

17. Gary Cooper: "High Noon" alone would be enough, but there's also "Sergeant York" (he won Oscars for both), "Mr. Deeds Goes to Town" and "Pride of the Yankees," among many others.

16. Robert De Niro: Sometimes lately it seems like he's quit trying. Another "Fockers" movie? But back in the day - "Mean Streets", "Taxi Driver", "Goodfellas", "The Godfather: Part II", "Raging Bull" - no one was better. Won Oscars for those last two; was robbed for "Taxi Driver."
Robert De Niro - Versatile Legend

15. James Dean: Three movies. Two Oscar nominations. Tragic death. Legend.

14. Clark Gable: Sure, "Gone with the Wind" is swell, but we'll take "It Happened One Night" (for which he won an Oscar), thanks.

13. Henry Fonda: Best known as the level-headed, decent sort ("The Grapes of Wrath," say, or "Young Mr. Lincoln"), it made roles like the incredibly vile Frank in "Once Upon a Time in the West" all the more enjoyable. Won Oscar in his last film role, "On Golden Pond."

12. Bette Davis: Maybe it's impolite to say this about a woman (or a man), but I think she would have liked it: In such films as "Jezebel," "All About Eve" and "What Ever Happened to Baby Jane," she kicked butt. Another versatile genius who could simply fit in any Role without much effort, despite having a beauty like that. She won Oscars for "Dangerous" and "Jezebel."
Enigmatic, Beautiful and Versatile Bette Davis

11. Tom Hanks: Just missed the top 10. Male version of America's sweetheart. Two Oscar wins; work in "Forrest Gump" underrated (he also won for "Philadelphia").

10. Jimmy Stewart
Played things deceptively simple; "It's a Wonderful Life" gets him icon status, but he's better in "The Philadelphia Story" (he won an Oscar, in fact). Just old-school good, really, in so many roles, moving easily from thrillers to comedies to Westerns to dramas and being great in all of them.

9. Meryl Streep
Can you be too good? Maybe. We've come to take excellence from her for granted. And with 15 Oscar nominations - more than anyone else - and two wins, how can we not? Dramatic performances in "Kramer vs. Kramer," "Sophie's Choice" (she won Oscars for both) and "Silkwood" define her, but the Vassar College graduate can also be funny - see "Postcards from the Edge" and "Defending Your Life" for proof. Greatest living actor? Hard to argue.

8. Humphrey Bogart
Here's lookin' at you, kid. Even in a brilliant career, a single role can establish you as a legend. What if you had several? Sam Spade, Rick Blaine, Philip Marlowe, Charlie Allnut (he won an Oscar for "The African Queen"), Queeg - that's astounding. And each holds up well.

7. Paul Newman
The blue eyes, the iconoclastic cool, the quiet confidence. What are we leaving out? Oh, the enormous talent. "The Hustler," "Hud," "Cool Hand Luke," "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid," even "Slap Shot" - this was a guy you didn't just want to watch, you wanted to be like. And many have tried. Finally won an Oscar for "The Color of Money."

6. Katharine Hepburn
Where to start? The 12 Oscar nominations? The four wins, for "Morning Glory," "Guess Who's Coming to Dinner?," "The Lion in Winter" and "On Golden Pond?" As good a place as any. Yet my favorite of her roles - as headstrong, spoiled Tracy Lord in "The Philadelphia Story" - garnered only a nomination (the win went to Ginger Rogers for "Kitty Foyle"). Fine. But a career that spanned 62 years can probably best be summed up in a single word: class.
Katherine Hepburn - Classic Beauty in conjunction with Unequal Enigma and Fluent diversified Performance.

5. Marlon Brando
Arguably the most influential actor ever; his eight Oscar nominations (and two wins) only begin to tell the story. Famous for method acting, his performance in "The Wild One" was an anti-establishment classic in the buttoned-up '50s; his Oscar-winning role in "On the Waterfront" broke new ground and explored new possibilities and, of course, his Vito Corleone in "The Godfather" is iconic. Won Oscars for the latter two.

4. Marilyn Monroe
She's better known for her personal life than her movies, creating the oversized persona that is now a staple of tabloids and gossip shows. Whatever star power is, she had it in spades. Yet she was also in "All About Eve," "The Asphalt Jungle," "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" and "How to Marry a Millionaire;" her pose over the street grate in "The Seven Year Itch" is as famous (and imitated) as anything in movies.

3. Charlie Chaplin
In theory, when it comes to just watching a movie, I'm more of a Buster Keaton man. But it is impossible to overstate Chaplin's influence on the history of film. Actor, director, producer, composer (he shared an Oscar for original score for "Limelight") and all-around genius, he was the first truly huge movie star. He made what we think of as the motion-picture industry possible.
The first King of Movies - Charlie Chaplin. LEGEND.[period]

2. Cary Grant
Among the (many) movies he made between 1938 and 1941: "Bringing Up Baby," "His Girl Friday," "The Philadelphia Story" and "Suspicion." Nice little career for most; "Notorious" and "North by Northwest" would follow, as would many others. He personified the suave male lead; George Clooney's career would be unthinkable without him. Yet his only Oscar is honorary.

1. Jack Nicholson
He's been around forever (his first role was in a 1956 episode of "Matinee Theatre"), he's been nominated for 12 Oscars (winning three) and he somehow manages, through his roles and his lifestyle, to continue to epitomize cool (even though he's 72 years old). He's slowed down considerably, but whether through riding on the back of a motorcycle in "Easy Rider," riling up his fellow patients in "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" or managing all work but no play in "The Shining," he's become the face of Hollywood. Won Oscars for "Cuckoo's Nest," "Terms of Endearment" and "As Good As It Gets."
Jack Nicholson - Showman Forever


Of course, I have missed a lot of other Actors, who are also brilliant in whatever Role they play and moreover whom I simply love to watch again and again ... Namely 'Russel Crowe' in Gladiator, Cindrella Man or A Beautiful Mind; then 'Leonardo DiCaprio' in Departed, Blood Diamond or Titanic; 'Christian Bale' in American Psycho, The Machinist or Batman Begins, 'Anne Hathaway' in The Princess Diaries, The Devil wears Prada and Rachel getting Married; 'Jim Carrey' in Liar Liar, The Mask and Bruce Almighty; 'Sylvester Stallone' in Assassins, Rocky series or the Rambo series; 'Penélope Cruz' in The Girl of Your Dreams and Volver; 'Pierce Brosnan' in James Bond series or Thomas Crown Affair or Laws of Attraction; 'Heath Ledger' in The Dark Knight and Ten Things I hate about You; 'Matt Damon' in Jason Bourne series or Good Will Hunting; and a few others .... I can simply watch these Actors sizzle into the Silver Screen again and again .....

Satadru Roy